reached two conclusions: “First, the greater the importance of coevolutionary selection among the interacting species, the greater the importance of indirect effects in general evolution through the network. Second, in mutualisms with multiple interacting species, the species that have fewer direct interactions are more influenced by indirect effects than by their direct interactions ”, comments Jordano. These reciprocities help to understand how different species evolve and, on the other hand, how other factors, such as climate change, influence their evolutionary character, facilitating or hindering these types of relationships: “With slow environmental change, the indirect effects of species in evolution can help mutualistic interactions

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persist for long periods of time. On the contrary, rapid Panama WhatsApp Number List environmental change can make each species more vulnerable to extinction ”, concludes. What distinguishes Homo sapiens from other living things? And what about all mammals? What makes them different? These are the questions to which researchers from the Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM) have tried to find an answer , in collaboration with the Department of Experimental and Health Sciences of Pompeu Fabra University (UPF) . To do so, they have analyzed the already sequenced genome of 68 mammals and have identified 6,000 gene families that can only be found in these animals. These are genes without homologues outside mammals, that is, they are not present in

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other hairless species. In humans, they are estimated to account for 2.5% of genes that code for proteins. The work has been led by Dr. José Luis Villanueva-Cañas , researcher at the IMIM Evolutionary Genomics Research Group and currently a researcher at the Institute of Evolutionary Biology (UPF-CSIC), and Dr. Mar Albà , ICREA researcher at IMIM and of the Research Program in Biomedical Informatics (GRIB) of the IMIM and UPF. The group of Dr. David Andreu collaborated in the studyin the Department of Experimental and Health Sciences of the Pompeu Fabra University. It has been published in the journal Genome Biology and Evolution . Dr. Villanueva-Cañas explained that the objective of the work was “to understand which genes define

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