support a large part of the body’s weight. ” From an evolutionary point of view, the primate knee went from accommodating the forces of walking on all fours to shifting all the weight on two legs “, highlights Terence D. Capellini, researcher in the Department of Human Evolutionary Biology. “ Going from quadruped to bipedic changes the distribution of forces. All of our weight is being transmitted through our hips and our knees towards our ankles. The cells in the joint and the shape of the joint had to change to adapt to these new forces . ” Regulatory genetic elements of knee formation Chondrocytes, cartilage cells, play a critical role in the prenatal and postnatal development of the knee, so the researchers wondered whether changes in the regulation of their

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genes could have played a role in the evolution of the knee. To test their hypothesis, the team evaluated chromatin accessibility in human and mouse chondrocytes during knee development. The idea is that the more open or accessible the chromatin structure, the more access the protein machinery has to DNA to regulate its Czech Republic Phone Number List activity. The researchers were then able to locate important regulatory genetic elements in the formation of the knee from the most accessible regions of DNA identified. By studying the evolutionary context, the researchers found that the regulatory elements involved in the development of knee chondrocytes showed traces of a selection that occurred during the evolution of primates and hominids. The results also pointed

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to the existence of a series of adaptive modifications in the formation of the human knee. From the analyzes and carried out, the researchers have proposed a model that explains how the evolution of the human knee occurred and its relationship with osteoarthritis. The team proposes a scenario with strong morphological limitations, in which the regulatory genetic elements involved in the formation of the knee did not admit changes that would affect the biological efficacy or the standing capacity. In this situation, the appearance of any changes that compromised its function would be selected against. Influence of knee evolution in osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis is a common disorder associated with aging. It occurs when the cartilage that protects

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