the Paleolithic and the Neolithic, some 10,000 years ago, ”the authors conclude. he Group of Ecology, Evolution and Conservation of Mediterranean Vegetation, of the University of Jaén , has identified 13 species of solitary bees that nest in cavities on the ground in Andalusian olive groves and depend on plant covers to survive. These are insects that live alone, not in hives, and can be bioindicators of the type of crop applied: ecological with herbaceous cover or intensive without it. The research focuses on solitary pollinators that are part of the biodiversity that surrounds olive cultivation, since this tree is pollinated by air, without insects. Among them, the honey bee ( Apis mellifera ) does not appear, since its structure is social

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and it is considered livestock due to its management for economic purposes. “We have focused on solitary bees that use nesting boxes, detecting 13 different species in this work,” says Carlos El Salvador Phone Number List Martínez-Núñez, researcher from the University of Jaén to the Discover Foundation, co-author of the study ‘Plant-solitary bee networks have stable cores but variable peripheries under differing agricultural management Bioindicator nodes unveiled ‘ , published in the journal Ecological Indicators. The objective was to elucidate the difference in solitary bee communities between intensive olive groves, which lack vegetation cover, and

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ecological ones, with it. The results point to the abundance of biodiversity in these ecosystems. On the one hand, the high variety of herbaceous plants that pollinate these 13 species, more than 68 of the around 300 that grow. On the other hand, the great variety of these insects. The work process was focused on the bees that use cavities for nesting, so that the experts located nests in 18 olive groves in five Andalusian provinces, half of them grown organically with plant cover. These structures are very reliable for the study of interaction networks (graphic representations that show which species of bee pollinates which species of plant, and with what frequency), indicates the researcher, since once the bee has deposited its eggs in the cavity ,

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