process that would have significant similarities to the domestication of animals. Scientists had long been searching for evidence for this hypothesis due to the uncertainties that still existed about its underlying mechanisms and the challenges it posed in testing them experimentally. The genotypes of a Denisovan and two Neanderthals allowed us to study how the gene influenced the differences between modern and archaic humans “Hypotheses have already been put forward about a mild deficit of neural crest cells as an underlying factor in animal domestication. Is it possible that during evolution modern humans developed a more prosocial cognition compared to other already extinct humans as a result of the changes that affect the cells of the neural crest?

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“, asks Alejandro Andirkó, a doctoral student at the Department of  Greece Phone Number List Catalan Philology and General Linguistics at the University of Barcelona who participated in the study. Different faces to Neanderthals To carry out the study, the experts looked for whether certain disorders of neurological development, such as Williams syndrome , had regulatory circuits that shape the human face. Patients with this rare disorder tend to have smaller facial features and act in a particularly friendly manner. To do this, Matteo Zanella , co-author of the work, studied the BAZ1B gene in stem cells from patients with duplicated or deleted genes in the Williams-Beuren 7q11.23 region, which affects human behavior and the function of neural crest cells. After realizing that the

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gene acts as a regulator of human facial features, the researchers examined genotypes of a Denisovan and two Neanderthals to study how the gene influenced the differences between modern and archaic humans. “We wanted to know if the genetic networks of neural crest cells were affected in human evolution by comparing them with those of Neanderthal genomes”, explains Cedric Boeckx, ICREA professor of the General Linguistics Section of the Catalan Philology and General Linguistics department. of the UB and main author. The results show that BAZ1B affects a large number of genes that accumulate high-frequency mutations in modern human populations and that are not found in the archaic genomes that we have. “This means

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