Mimi Arandjelovic, Christophe Boesch, Hjalmar Kühl, Linda Vigilant, Kevin Langergraber, John Novembre, Marta Gut, Ivo Gut, Arcadi Navarro, Frands Carlsen, Aida M. Andrés, Hans. R. Siegismund, Aylwyn Scally, Laurent Excoffier, Chris Tyler-Smith, Sergi Castellano, Yali Xue, Christina Hvilsom, Tomas Marques-Bonet. A recent study led by Ville Pimenoff of the Catalan Institute of Oncology / IDIBELL and Ignacio Bravo of the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) has discovered that a particular lineage of the papilloma virus, associated with anogenital cancer, is very likely to be originated through sexual transmission from archaic Neanderthals-Denisovans to modern humans. This study has been published in the Journal of Molecular Biology and Evolution (DOI: 10.1093 / molbev / msw214). Previous studies show that almost all people of Eurasian descent

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have a small proportion of Neanderthal Chile Email List DNA in them – up to 5 percent of the human genome – and it has now become apparent that humans inherited more from Neanderthals than is previously known. expected: specifically, sexually transmitted papillomavirus infection. A group of about 40 human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the most common sexually transmitted infections, and virtually all people develop these HPV infections at some point in their life, until they disappear naturally through the immune system. However, in the case of persistent HPV infection, especially strain 16, the infection often leads to cancer of the cervix, vulva, vagina, penis, or anus. With ancestry reconstruction, detailed HPV16 evolutionary tree timing as never seen before, and by comparing the evolutionary histories of HPV16 with that of humans, a new pattern has been found. Now,

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researchers have generated compelling evidence that HPV16 co-diverged with archaic and modern humans – only to be repopulated at a much later date through its contact with Neanderthals-Denisovans – challenging the assumption that HPV16 co- it evolved only with modern humans. During the evolution of HPV16, variants A and B / C / D co-diverged with archaic and modern humans respectively. When modern human populations left Africa and had sex with Neanderthals and Denisovans they were infected by the HPV16A variant that had evolved with archaic humans. Later this variant has flourished and spread among modern humans. Dr. Ville Pimenoff, first author of the study, concludes: “For us, the results further suggest that our ancestors not only interbred to a large extent with Neanderthals but also that the evolution of pathogens such as HPV16 may take different directions.

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