surface. Furthermore, we may be able to detect biomarkers in its atmosphere with the future generation of space and ground telescopes such as the JWST and the E-ELT, currently under construction. ” Other singular worlds The transits observed with TESS, and which triggered the discovery of this planetary system, belong to GJ 357 b, a planet 22% larger than Earth. It orbits eleven times closer to its star than Mercury to our Sun and has a surface temperature of around 254 ° C. “GJ 357 b is what we call a ‘hot Earth’ —explains Enric Pallé, an astrophysicist at the IAC, co-author of the article and Luque’s doctoral supervisor—, and although it cannot host life, it should be noted that it is the third closest transiting exoplanet known to date and one of the

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best rocky planets that we have to measure the composition of any atmosphere it may have ”. For its part, GJ 357 c has a mass of at least 3.4 times that of Earth, orbits the star every 9.1 Mauritania Email List days at a distance a little more than twice that of GJ 357 b, and has an estimated surface temperature of around 127 ° C. The TESS satellite did not observe transits from this planet, suggesting that its orbit is tilted slightly – at least one degree – relative to the orbit of the planet ‘hot Earth’, so it never passes through the star from our perspective. . To confirm the presence of GJ 357 by discovering its neighbors, Luque and his collaborators resorted to previous measurements of the star’s radial velocity, the movement of the star along our line of sight. An orbiting

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planet produces a gravitational pull on its star that results in a small motion that astronomers can detect through slight changes in the star’s spectrum. The team examined data from the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile, the WM Keck Observatory in Hawaii, and the Calar Alto Observatory in Spain, among others. In the case of the Spanish observatory, the data studied belong to the CARMENES instrument, a visible and infrared spectrograph developed by a consortium of German and Spanish institutions and co-led by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC), with the participation of the IAC, from the Institut de Ciències de l’Espai, (IEEC-CSIC) and the Astrobiology Center.The

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