extensive collaboration between different fields of research, from paleoanthropology to biochemistry, proteomics and genomics of populations, as well as between different institutions. The recovery of ancient genetic material from very rare fossil specimens requires high-quality equipment and expertise. This is the reason behind the ten-year strategic collaboration between Enrico Cappellini and Jesper Velgaard Olsen, a professor at the Novo Nordisk Foundation Protein Research Center at the University of Copenhagen and a co-author of the paper. “This study is an exciting milestone in paleoproteomics. Using a state-of-the-art mass spectrometry technique, we determined the amino acid sequence of the protein residues of Homo antecessor tooth

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enamel. We can then compare the ancient protein Portugal Phone Number List sequences that we ‘read’ with those of other hominins, for example Neanderthals and Homo sapiens, to determine how they are genetically related, ”says Jesper Velgaard Olsen. “I really look forward to seeing what paleoproteomics will reveal in the future,” Enrico Cappellini concludes. The study of human evolution by paleoproteomics will continue in the coming years through the recently started project: “Palaeoproteomics to Unleash Studies on Human History (PUSHH)”, funded by the European Union and to which many of the article’s co-authors belong. The research is mainly funded by VILLUM FONDEN, the Novo Nordisk Foundation and the programs of the Marie Sklowowska-Curie Actions

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International Scholarship and International Training Network. On behalf of the National Center for Research on Human Evolution (CENIEH-ICTS) of Burgos, José María Bermúdez de Castro (as corresponding author) and María Martinón have participated in the research. On behalf of the IPHES (Catalan Institute of Human Paleoecology and Social Evolution) and the URV (Rovira i Virgili University of Tarragona, Eudald Carbonell. The investigations and excavations of the deposits of the Sierra de Atapuerca are being financed by the Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities, the Junta de Castilla y León and the Fundación Atapuerca. Histone acetylation is an evolutionarily conserved modification of chromatin associated with the activation of gene

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