the bones in the joints breaks and wears away. Among the different factors involved in knee osteoarthritis, genetic factors play a relevant role. Population genetic studies indicate that about 80 regions of the genome related to the onset of osteoarthritis are located in regulatory regions. Furthermore, they do so preferentially near genes involved in the development of chondrocytes and bone tissue. The team of researchers suggests that osteoarthritis could be a kind of by-product of the evolution of the knee. Continuing with their evolutionary model, in which initially there would have been a very strict genetic program that allowed few changes, the researchers point out that, more recently, different factors, such as genetic drift or the selection of other

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characteristics, led to an increase in the number of tolerable changes in the regulatory genetic regions of knee formation. ” As human populations expanded and mixed, genetic Dominican Republic Phone Number List variants began to occur that slightly modify how the knee is formed or how it is maintained, ” says Daniel Richard, researcher in human evolutionary biology and first author of the work. Richard points out that these slight deviations, acting on a structurally highly restricted knee, lead to an increased risk of developing osteoarthritis. The key to maintaining these changes, related to osteoarthritis, is that they do not affect early knee development or the biological efficacy of people when they are young. Osteoarthritis does not affect, in principle, the reproductive capacity, since it usually

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appears years after the reproductive period. Functional demonstration The evolutionary model is supported by the comparison of the genome between people with osteoarthritis and healthy controls. Researchers have observed that patients with osteoarthritis have, on average, a greater number of genetic variants in the regulatory genetic regions of the genes involved in the formation of the knee, compared to the general population. Finally, the team has shown in a mouse model that a variant located in an enhancer region of GDF5 expression influences the regulation of knee formation and contributes to susceptibility to osteoarthritis. GDF5 encodes a transcription factor involved in knee development. The results of the work provide detailed

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