also accumulate genomic material rapidly, with important evolutionary and ecological consequences. In addition, a group of samples has been detected that presents a hybrid genome between C. amazonum and C. purpureus , in which the size of the genome is approximately the sum of the genomes of both species. The comparative study of the samples collected in the field with those cultivated in vitro leads to the conclusion that C. amazonum is morphologically distinguished from C. purpureus and even from the hybrid group. Although the results conclude that the observed morphological differences are mainly due to environmental factors, genetic factors are also important. Centuries of Moss-Centric Research Mosses belong to the group of plants called bryophytes (non-vascular plants). They perform important functions in ecosystems:

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they buffer desertification, regulate water levels in river Zambia Email Lists beds, and constitute the habitat where many microorganisms and small animals feed and protect them. Researchers involved in the delimitation of moss species have devoted much effort to the genus Ceratodon since its description in 1826 by the Swiss botanist Samuel Élisée von Bridel. However, the great morphological diversity of C. purpureus , its wide distribution over all continents and its growth on a wide variety of substrates has made this task difficult for a long time. Stuart F. McDaniel, from the University of Florida, and co-author of the studies conducted at UMU, has spent years studying different aspects of the biology of C. purpureus , and in 2005 he published that gene flow between populations in the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere was frequent,

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but tropical populations (including those in the Mediterranean region) were more genetically isolated. These observations suggested that the level of sampling was insufficient to detect the structure of the populations of this species and encouraged the UMU researchers to undertake this study. The sex chromosomes of the species are responsible for determining the biological sex of individuals and are characterized, among other things, because their rate of recombination (the process by which the genetic information contained in the chromosomes forms new associations) is less than in the rest of the genome. This peculiarity means that, in addition to increasingly differentiating from each other throughout evolutionary history, sex chromosomes tend to accumulate harmful mutations that can cause from the malfunction of some genes to the infertility of the individual.

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