historical data in order to offer answers. The result is surprising: not only have humans survived despite TB infections, but this infection has probably played a key role in the current shape of society as we know it. The study is a collaboration between the Germans Trias i Pujol Research Institute (IGTP), the Center for Comparative Medicine and Bioimaging (CMCiB), CIBERES and the Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC). The article has been published by the scientific journal Scientific Reports . “It’s a long story about the battle between people and bacteria” explains Martí Català, the team’s modeler. “When the disease appeared in the Paleolithic, population growth had fallen from 1% to only 0.003%, probably the small groups became infected

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and died. Our model shows how at that time, Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands Email Lists when infant mortality was 50 %, women had to have 2 surviving children (that is, four deliveries) to maintain the population. With the arrival of modern strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis , the disease became more deadly and the numbers needed to maintain the species increased to 3 surviving children, that is to say at least 6 pregnancies “. The reason why the population shifted from hunter-gatherer dynamics to settlement and agricultural life has not been fully understood, at a time when habitable parts of the world were limited from the Indo-Subcontinent to Australia, due to glaciation. generalized. So far there have been no obvious reasons to explain this change. “Our data suggest that the only way

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for our species to survive the ravages of TB was to increase fertility, and the best way to do this was probably to start farming and increase food production,” explains Professor Clara Prats, physicist from the UPC and coordinator of the in silico modeling program at the CMCiB-IGTP, which has developed the model. “They point out that the death of entire groups could only be stopped with an unprecedented population increase (a multiplication of 20 times in 100 years). Around this time, people who had been infected by previous bacterial strains and who had survived, also began to develop resistance to disease. Ironically, the shift from free air, exercise, and open space to smoky indoor spaces and poor sanitation made people less healthy and more

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