responses to climate change over a huge area and on a very long time scale. The results show great local differences in the way in which species respond to variations from one year to another. “We have information on very different phenological events of birds, mammals, amphibians, plants, reptiles, etc., ranging from the first song of the chickadee to the appearance of the common toad and the fall of birch leaves”, says María del Mar Delgado (Mixed Biodiversity Research Unit of the University of Oviedo, located on the Mieres Campus), main author of the study. What has been observed is a general rigidity in the response of species to variations in climate from one year to the next. In particular, the warmer the year, the greater the desynchronization

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between phenological events and environmental Cyprus WhatsApp Number List signals. In addition to this, it has been observed that there are large differences between stations and sites. In the huge region of the former Soviet Union, the speed at which phenological events are changing over time depends on when the event occurs (spring or autumn), the trophic level to which the species belong (plants, herbivores or predators) and if they are in hot (south) or cold (north) places. For his part, Professor Tomas Roslin (Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences), one of the main authors of this study, explains that the observed mismatch “is the result of the past evolution of the different species to local conditions that limit their capacity to adapt to the new conditions

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imposed by climate change “. Natural communities are unlikely to respond to climate change as a set of disconnected species living at the same time and place. Rather, these species interact with each other, and this means that ecological communities tend to be prone to responding as a whole, which can make them robust to the Jenga effect at the local level … but, up to a point. ” Over many decades, in some cases a full century, numerous people within the scientific field have been collecting data on phenological events in more than 150 protected areas in the former Soviet Union. These were meticulously compiled into an annual report, one for each year and for each protected area. “For a long time, this unique scientific contribution was hidden in

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