Phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that these size differences could respond to an evolutionary process typical of island systems rather than to greater colonization success by individuals with larger brains. “It is not yet clear why animals need bigger brains on the islands, but it could be due to the need to survive under changing environmental conditions. Unlike on the mainland, on the islands animals cannot leave when conditions deteriorate. A large brain makes it possible to face challenges because it facilitates the development of behavioral responses ”, explains Daniel Sol, a CSIC researcher at the Center for Ecological Research and Forestry Applications (CREAF). These results are consistent with previous studies that suggest that intelligence is linked to greater flexibility in behavior and that this ability to modify behaviors can

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be an advantage when exploiting new resources. “In the woodpeckers of the Galapagos Islands, for example, the traditional technique of capturing insects is replaced by the use of Guadeloupe Email Lists twigs to extract insects from the recesses during years of severe droughts. The trend towards the use of advanced tools is especially high in the islands, as in the case of the New Caledonian crow or the Hawaiian crow, and is consistent with the theory that the islands can favor the evolution of advanced cognitive abilities ”, adds the researcher Ferran Sayol, also from the Center for Ecological Research and Forestry Applications. “The discovery that animals develop larger brains on islands is important not only to understand brain evolution, but also because it shows that evolution can sometimes be predictable,” concludes Sol.The Paleoneurobiology group of the

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Centro Nacional de Investigación sobre la Evolución Humana (CENIEH) has published a methodological study in the journal Progress in Brain Research in which neuromarketing techniques were used for the first time to analyze the relationship between the hand and the use of stone tools, and the cognitive functions associated to the sensory and exploratory process of manipulation, in addition to the spatial relationship between hand and object. Neuromarketing uses variations in electrodermal activity to detect fluctuations in the emotional and attentional state of subjects in response to commercial stimuli. By applying this technique, and following an analysis of hand morphological variation in our species, the authors have analyzed the changes in the electrodermal response of the body during manipulation, in the Oldowan and Acheulean industries

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