In this new study, published in the journal PNAS , they have revealed the evolutionary origin of this cell segregation system. “We have discovered that the appearance, more than 200 million years ago, of a chromosomal rearrangement in a large family of freshwater fish resulted in the reuse of a group of genes ( rac3b / rfng / sgca) in this segmentation system of the rhombencephalon ”, explain Pujades and Martínez-Morales. They combined functional biological studies with functional genomic analysis and genomic editing in zebrafish to demonstrate that the cluster genes rac3b / rfng / sgca are specifically expressed at rhombomeric boundaries by establishing new interactions of regulatory elements through chromosomal rearrangement. “Our data suggest that the accelerated embryonic development observed in this group of fish – zebrafish embryos hatch in just 48 hours –

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With a million described species, insects are Turkmenistan Email List the most diverse animal lineage on Earth, a success that is explained, in part, by their long evolutionary history. The insects emerged 450 million years ago. Since then, their shape, physiology and life cycles have been diversifying, so they have colonized most aquatic and terrestrial habitats, and exploited all organic sources of resources. For example, the appearance of wings, 410 million years ago, allowed them to conquer the airspace. The most important innovation of all, however, was complete metamorphosis, that is, the process in which individuals acquire adult characteristics, first passing through the larval and pupal stages. An international study led by the Higher Council for Scientific Research (CSIC) reveals general trends in the evolution of the basic processes of modern insects, in particular the evolution

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from incomplete to complete metamorphosis. The results are published in the journal iScience . The first type of metamorphosis was simple and gradual. As the embryo formed, a nymph developed that had the fundamental characteristics of an adult; It grew and, in the final phase, the wings and genitals developed. Some groups of insects still undergo this type of metamorphosis, but 80% of today’s insect species undergo a complete metamorphosis. “Complete metamorphosis is understood to be an adaptive advantage. By going through such different phases (larva, pupa and adult) the different phases of the same species do not compete for resources ”, explains the coordinator of the study and researcher at the CSIC Xavier Bellés, which has been carried out at the Institute of Evolutionary Biology of Barcelona (mixed center of the CSIC and the Pompeu Fabra University).

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