Kebara 2, from the Israeli site that is 60,000 years old; Tabun 2, also located in Israel but 120,000 years old, and the Sidrón, a deposit of almost 50,000 years ago located in Asturias. “We have estimated a lung capacity of around 9 liters for the male Neanderthals of Kebara 2 and El Sidrón. The Tabun fossils correspond to a female Neanderthal and reveal a lung capacity of around 6 liters”, explains the MNCN researcher Daniel García Martínez. “The data obtained show much greater lung capacities in Homo neanderthalensis than in H. sapiens where the male average is around 7 liters and the female 5 “, he continues. “This study is the first to calculate the lung capacity of a fossil hominid. The results obtained are consistent with the theory that this extinct species required a large amount of oxygen to be able to support the metabolic needs demanded by its greater muscle and brain mass”,

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clarifies Markus Bastir. “We also conclude that Falkland Islands and Malvinas Email List this large lung capacity may reflect an evolutionary trend extended to the entire genus Homo since it is also observed in other species. It seems that the respiratory system has a prominent role in the evolution of the body shape of these species”, says the MNCN researcher. Why so much oxygen? Modern humans and Neanderthals have many things in common but also notable anatomical differences. Modern humans have a more streamlined complexion while Neanderthals had a fading forehead, a very large face projected forward, shorter limbs, and wider torsos (thorax and pelvis), presenting a more robust complexion. Until now, studies on their anatomy suggest that they had a larger brain, 1,500 cubic centimeters compared to 1,300, and around 10 or 15% more muscle mass. Both tissues, brain, and muscles,

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consume a large amount of energy that is supplied to the body in the form of nutrients and also with the supply of oxygen. Oxygen allows, through catabolic processes, the obtaining of energy. “From the characteristics described, we know that this species required large amounts of energy. That need, in addition to possibly playing against it when it came to survival, is reflected in a larger rib cage in its lower part, the area where it is inserted. the muscle in charge of inspiration, the diaphragm. García-Martínez, D., Torres-Tamayo, N., Torres-Sánchez, I., García-Río, F., Rosas, A., & Bastir, M. (2018). Ribcage measurements indicate greater lung capacity in Neanderthals and Lower Pleistocene hominins compared to modern humans. A new method has made it possible to identify twenty-five parallel mutations located in genes associated with wound healing,

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