An investigation with the participation of the Higher Council for Scientific Research (CSIC) shows how the multiple interactions between different species of living beings favor evolutionary development. The different species that inhabit the Earth form networks among themselves, which would be unable to survive without the connections that develop through this mutualism: parasites and hosts, plants and pollinators or predators and prey, are clear examples of survival. The study has recently been published in the journal Nature. The key was to understand how these species co-evolve together, forming large networks of mutualistic species. The exploration is based on the analysis of 75 interacting species that the researchers had already dealt

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with in previous studies, both in terrestrial and marine environments. Pakistan WhatsApp Number List Diversity and coevolution of species Studying how feedbacks affect evolution between species diversity has been fundamental in the research: “When species interact with each other, they often not only evolve, but they coevolve. Natural selection favors predators that are better at capturing prey, but it also favors prey that defend themselves to escape predators “, says Pedro Jordano, CSIC researcher at the Doñana Biological Station, who also adds:” Among the mutualistic species natural selection favors, on the one hand, plants that best attract pollinating insects and, on the other, insects that visit flowers that are more efficient at extracting their pollen and nectar ”. The

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feedback that occurs between the variety of species results in different indirect effects. In the exploration carried out, the researchers studied various networks that, in addition to plants and pollinators, included species such as birds and mammals that ate fruits and that, in this way, provided the dispersal of their seeds. Complex network structures that have direct implications for evolutionary understanding and the different coevolutions that occur between species: “The problem to be solved is not how the traits of the species are formed by direct coevolution between pairs of species. Rather, the central problem is how coevolution shapes species that interact directly and indirectly, ”says Jordano. Following the study, the researchers

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