analysis of eight sperm motility parameters captured at 50 frames / second with SCA illustrating the clustering of species on the vertical axis and indicating the relatedness among the mammalian species on the horizontal axis (linkage distance). HS, Homo sapiens (human); PU, Papio ursinus (chacma baboon); RM, Macaca mulatta (rhesus monkey); CA, Chlorocebus aethiops (vervet monkey); OO, Ovis orientalis (merino ram); MM, Mus musculus (house mouse). B. Comparing physiological media Different physiological media used for sperm preparations seem to affect sperm performance in ART. While media to be used for human sperm assessment are generally prescribed in the WHO’s laboratory manual, the selection of an appropriate medium for

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NHP sperm functional testing are less clear. CASA can be Canada WhatsApp Number List useful in determining the effect of media on both percentage total sperm motility as well as several sperm subpopulations (Fig. 4). sperm motility percentages in vervet monkeys Fig. 4: Comparison of five physiological media on sperm motility percentages in vervet monkeys. Red, human tubal fluid (HTF); blue, capacitating HTF; white, Ham’s F10; green, HD Sperm Wash; black, HD Sperm Capacitation (From: Mabotha, L (2019). Evaluation of sperm functionality in non-human primates, focussing on sperm capacitation. MSc Thesis, University of the Western Cape). C. Toxicological studies For any animal model to be relevant for reproductive toxicity testing, the test extract

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must produce a similar in vitro pharmacokinetic effect as found in humans. We found a similar effect on various sperm parameters when exposing human and NHP sperm to two heavy metals acting as environmental contaminants (CuSO4 and CdCl2). Not only was sperm swimming speed (VCL) affected by increased concentration of CuSO4 (Fig. 5), it also effected the induction of sperm hyperactivation (as measured by applying species-specific SCA cut-off values, Fig. 6). vervet monkey sperm Fig. 5: Effect of various concentrations of CuSO4 on curvilinear velocity of vervet monkey sperm as analyzed by SCA at 50 frames / second. Hyperactivation induced in vervet monkey sperm Fig. 6: Hyperactivation induced in vervet monkey sperm after

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