place nearby pollen and nectar collected for future larvae to feed on. The relationship between each species of bee and the pollens it carries is obvious. The material is taken to the laboratory to analyze each cavity, identifying both the bee species and the pollen species that share a habitat. With this information, the experts built the concrete connections between insects and vegetables, comparing those of the intensive olive groves with those of the ecological ones. After two years of study, the scientists confirmed the existence of three relevant bees due to their abundance: Osmia submicans , Hoplitis adunca and Osmia caerulescens . Two bees are a good bioindicator. The presence of O. Caerulescens shows an ecological cultivation when the

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insect occupies the central part of the plant-pollinator system; that is, it establishes relationships with numerous plants. For its part, O. Bicornis is also a good indicator, since it shows the Estonia Phone Number List non-intensive management of the olive grove, although in its case the presence is limited to peripheral relationships, that is, limited ones, in the system. They also identified the key plants for feeding these insects. Specifically, the daisy – Calendula arvensis -, a type of chrysanthemum – Glebonis coronaria -, the viboreras – the genus Echium -, chicory – Leontodon longirostris and Sonchus asper -, and dandelion – Taraxacum officinale -. The researcher highlights the value of the herbaceous cover in the olive grove, a crop that has traditionally eliminated it, as well

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as pollinators. Excess honey bees Regarding the effect on these insects and on the pollination networks of the different agricultural practices, the difference between ecological and intensive is not fundamental, indicates Martínez-Núñez. The same species of bees and plants form the nucleus of the interactions in one or another type of culture. However, in the ‘periphery’, in the non-structuring relationships of this system, there is greater wealth in organic olive groves. The Group of Ecology, Evolution and Conservation of Mediterranean Vegetation, of the University of Jaén is now studying how the ecological restoration of an olive grove affects the presence of solitary bees in general, not only those that nest in cavities. The research has been funded

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