synthesis of this acid and the lack of alternative routes for its production. As Professor Ricard Albalat explains, “our results reveal that the loss of genes related to RA in O. dioica occurred in a regressive evolutionary scenario, where the functions that were lost were not necessary for the organism”. “In humans,” Albalat continues, “as in the rest of chordate species, many of the enzymes that regulate the synthesis and degradation of AR are known. Understanding how these enzymes are regulated is relevant to our health. Everything indicates that the metabolic machinery of RA is a genetically robust system, that is, that it forms a difficult-to-alter pathway where several enzymes encoded by multiple genes can redundantly perform the same function. Furthermore, discovering that RA was

also important for non-vertebrate Bhutan Email Lists animal biology implied that the metabolic machinery of RA could be very ancient, dating back to the origins of animal evolution. ‘ How is it possible to generate a heart without retinoic acid? According to Professor Cristian Cañestro, «these results illustrate what is known as the ‘inverse paradox’ of evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo), in which morphologically similar structures differ significantly in terms of the genes responsible for their development. training”. «The heart is another of the paradigmatic examples that we try to understand: How is it possible that O. dioica can form a heart without RA while for the rest of chordates RA is essential to create this organ? In short, we hope to be able to provide some answers and evaluate the impact that the loss of RA has

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had on the function of cardiogenic genes, ”explains Cañestro. Biological innovation is not necessarily linked to an increase in functional complexity or the number of genes, the authors point out. Genomic rearrangements and changes in the epigenetic machinery, apparent loss of light receptor organs, reduction in complexity and body size, or increased speed of embryonic development and the life cycle of O. dioica are circumstances that possibly allowed the evolution of new ways to perfectly build a heart, for example, without the need for AR. Rebuilding gene evolution as an abandoned train route As Albalat and Cañestro detail, “the results show that genes can follow non-random loss patterns,

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