for example by selection against hybrids, but at the same time we found evidence of exchange of mitochondrial genes between species, as well as a certain morphological homogenization “, continues Martínez-Solano. These discrepancies between the morphological and genetic patterns, as well as the analysis of different genes (nuclear and mitochondrial) may be the result of several factors that are not mutually exclusive: historical (isolation processes followed by population regrouping), ecological (adaptation processes). local), or genetic (existence of genetic incompatibilities). “Clarifying the relative role of these factors allows us to better understand the process of formation of new species, and in particular, of the formation and evolution of

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barriers to hybridization. In this specific case, Saudi Arabia WhatsApp Number List historical factors seem to have played a more important role. “, concludes Martínez-Solano. Apparently the same The similarity between both species caused that, until a few years ago, it was considered that they were the same species. However, genetic studies showed that, given the accumulated differences in their genomes, they are two different species whose differentiation process occurred about 9 million years ago. In Europe the climatic fluctuations of the Pleistocene had a strong impact on many species, which expanded or contracted their ranges in response to these changes. In the specific case of these toads, their distributions have probably changed a lot in the last two million years.

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During the colder periods of the Pleistocene, the two species were isolated in different peninsulas in southern Europe: the Iberian ( Bufo spinosus ), and the Balkan and Italian peninsulas ( Bufo bufo ). Later, in warmer periods, both expanded northwards, coming into contact in France and forming the current hybrid zone.expansions of the dorsal part of the thorax of insects, and that a principle would provide the ability to glide before evolving into a fully movable wing. The alternative theory, the gill theory, suggests that the wing of insects is a modification of a pre-existing structure at the base of the legs, which in aquatic arthropods would have given rise to the gills and which was modified to form the wing during conquest. from the earth.

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