results reveal that the increase in atmospheric CO 2 is inversely related to these carbon residence times, which, therefore, decrease as atmospheric CO 2 continues to increase. In three decades, this carbon residence time in vegetation has been reduced at a rate of between 0.2% and 0.3% per year. “The residence times of carbon in vegetation are being shortened by factors such as warming and droughts. Temperature increases the metabolism of organisms, as well as increases in rainfall in some areas, but droughts cause mortality to increase and, therefore, the residence time to decrease. In general, there is an increase in tree mortality in all the climatic zones studied ”, explains Josep Peñuelas, CSIC researcher at the Center for

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Ecological Research and Forestry Applications (CREAF), and co-author of the work. The decrease in carbon residence times in forests is “significant”, Peñuelas points out, “because it Italy Phone Number List represents a decrease of up to 9% in three decades”. The results suggest that carbon sinks are likely to be limited by a decrease in the retention capacity of forests. Knowledge gaps represent a bias that determines what we know about the effects of alien species on invertebrates globally. Ecologists from the Autonomous University of Madrid (UAM), the University of Alcalá, the Museum of Natural Sciences-CSIC and the Federal University of Goiás (Brazil) have carried out a systematic review taking into account these information gaps. As part of the results, published in the

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journal Biological Invasions , the researchers indicate some possible scientific advances that would fill these gaps. The scientists detected 1,786 case studies that compared attributes of invertebrates in the presence and absence of exotic species, finding both negative and positive effects as well as neutral (no apparent effects) on the invertebrates under study. According to the work, the main biases in the scientific literature that could condition these effects included the few studies that had been carried out in regions invaded by arid and tropical climates, estuaries and marine ecosystems, as well as in natural regions little or not at all disturbed on the planet. In fact, few studies were identified that addressed alien species originating from the Neotropical,

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