ago has oscillated with a limit of about 40 species (currently, there are about 20 species, except for small mammals such as rodents and bats, which did not enter the analysis). The study, published in Scientific Reports, concludes that this oscillation was due both to climatic changes and to competition between species. “The oscillations of biodiversity were quite abrupt,” says Soledad Domingo, a CSIC researcher at the Doñana Biological Station, who has participated in the study, led by Juan López Cantalapiedra, from the University of Alcalá de Henares, and together with Laura Domingo, from the Complutense University of Madrid and the CSIC. “When diversity grew too high above this limit, the system became unbalanced, unsustainable, and many species suddenly disappeared. With this, biodiversity fell well below those 40. But this limit and these fluctuations have also changed over time,

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modulated by complex interactions between various Ethiopia Email List factors, such as those related to climate change and competition between species ”, adds Domingo. For example, at times when there were large migrations of species from Africa or when Iberian ecosystems were more heterogeneous (when there were grasslands alternated with more forested landscapes), the Iberian Peninsula was home to more species of mammals. On the other hand, when the ecological niches were more saturated, or during intervals in which the ecosystems were very arid, the system has tended to stop incorporating species (either by migration or by the local appearance of new species) or to lose them more quickly. (through extinctions or migrations to other regions). In their study, the researchers have analyzed information from the fossil record of some 200 species of mammals that lived on the Iberian

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Peninsula between 15 and 2 million years ago, a period in which mastodons, rhinos, giraffes, antelopes and big cats lived. By analyzing this information, they have been able to reconstruct how the diversity of mammals has varied during those 13 million years and what factors have limited it. Researchers from the National Museum of Natural Sciences (MNCN-CSIC) have calculated for the first time the lung capacity of Neanderthals and confirmed that it was considerably higher than that of Homo sapiens . The data suggest that the lung capacity of Neanderthals was around 20% greater than that of modern humans. For this study, carried out using virtual anthropology techniques and 3D geometric morphometry, they have relied on experimental physiological data from the University Hospital of La Paz. The team has used fossils corresponding to costal elements of three different individuals:

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