have ignored paternal effects that we now demonstrate significant and opens up a whole new field for expanding the theory of the sex ratio,” Malo concludes. Researchers from the National Museum of Natural Sciences (MNCN-CSIC) have analyzed the kinship relationships of the most primitive marine snails (Vetigastropoda) and the most common of the Mediterranean and the European Atlantic coasts. Specifically, they have worked with species of the Trochidae family, a group that includes some 60 genera and around 600 current species. After genetic analysis, they propose to divide the Gibbula genus into at least three different genera. These marine snails play an important ecological role in marine communities as they regulate algae populations and serve as food for numerous species, becoming a key element in the marine food chain.

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They are also consumed by man; in Luxembourg Email List Spain mainly in the Canary Islands and Andalusia, where they are known by the common name of “burgados” or “Burguillos” respectively. “For this research we have worked with 33 European species of the Gibbula, Jujubinus, Phocus , Clelandella and Callumbonella genera “, contextualizes the MNCN researcher Juan E. Uribe. The Vetigastropoda subclass of marine snails is an extremely diverse group that is distributed throughout the latitudes of the planet and is found from the coastline to the depths of the ocean. They have different ways of developing or reproducing, in addition to very diverse morphologies: there are limpet-shaped ones, as well as a more or less conical and spirally wound shell. Traditionally, these primitive sea snails have been a highly controversial group in their taxonomic classification. Until now, two well differentiated

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groups were established depending on the possession or not of pairs of organs in a symmetrical arrangement. “Thanks to the number of samples and the possibilities to amplify the DNA that science currently offers, in a second work in collaboration with Japanese researchers published in the journal Zoologica Scripta, we have been able to carry out deep genetic analysis and determine that the symmetry of the organs it is not a valid character to separate the two groups, “explains Rafael Zardoya, also from the MNCN. An extremely ancient animal group The Vetigastropoda subclass is a very ancient group that encompasses species dating back to the Cambrian – approximately 500 million years ago (Ma). They have survived numerous natural extinctions and are used as a model for evolutionary studies.

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