beings and the difference between large groups of populations. There are characteristics that are typical of the human species. Some are language, cognitive abilities and the fact of walking upright. But what biological keys are hidden behind these characteristics of human beings? All the distinctive elements of our species are due to genes that have been enhanced by natural selection for thousands of years. For example, humans and chimpanzees share 99% of the directly comparable or alignable part of the genome. Although 1% may seem small, this percentage translates into a minimum of 30 million genetic differences between one species and another, and this implies a very broad field of scientific study. Even between one human and another there are 3 million differences on a genetic basis. The genetic alterations that make us human Modern humans appeared about 200,000 years ago in Africa,

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from where they spread 100,000 years ago in Malta Email List different areas around the planet, from tropical regions to high altitude places where they have adapted over thousands of years. Scientists have described several evolutionary adaptations that define us as a species. Why are there populations that, despite living in regions located at high altitudes, survive with less oxygen? The explanation is found in a collection of genetic variants typical of these individuals, which make them better adapted to the lack of oxygen. Scientists have described these traits in populations from the Himalayas, Ethiopia, and the Andes. In the first two regions there are different variants of the same gene, and in the case of the Andean mountain range the gene that regulates this adaptation is a different one. Scientists are also able to deduce through the genetic material of current populations the

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resistance genes that we as humans have developed for certain diseases, especially infectious ones. Many people have surviving episodes of humanity such as the black plague that swept Europe during the Middle Ages written in their genes. Or malaria, until a few decades ago present in our country. So far researchers have identified about 8 different gene mutations that help us defeat malaria. But not everything is black and white so the same alteration that offers resistance against an infectious disease can have other health disadvantages. In fact, Another case is found in the Inuit populations of Canada, Alaska and Greenland, which have adapted to the cold and dark environments of the Arctic environment. In this region of the planet, researchers have found that individuals are adapted to a diet high in fat because fish is very present in their diet, which is very rich in omega-3s.

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