the carp Cyprinus carpio or the largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides , now common in Spain, are included in the list of the 100 most harmful invasive alien species in the world , published by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Many of them were officially introduced at the initiative of fisheries managers but, since 1968, many have been released by individuals, which is currently illegal. “We have a very interesting and old river fish fauna, but very altered”, Elvira acknowledges. To avoid confusion, it is advisable to differentiate between native, introduced or invasive species. In the first case, the species arrive by themselves to a place where they settle and remain for generations; in the second, they reach the territory through direct or facilitated human action, “for example, connecting watersheds.”

However, most introductions fail because they fail to Bulgaria Email List adapt to the new environment. The few species that do achieve this can become invasive, as they are distributed in large numbers and spread throughout the territory, which can cause negative effects on the ecosystem. Controversial legislation How is the presence of these exotic species regulated in Spain? In the framework of Law 42/2007 on Natural Heritage and Biodiversity , in 2011, a Catalog of Invasive Alien Species and a List of Exotic Species with Invasive Potential were approved . Fishermen and hunters raised their voices against some of the species that appeared on the list because it was detrimental to their interests. Two years later, the government removed from the list species that scientists and ecologists considered dangerous,

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so the latter appealed the decision to the Supreme Court. Now, the highest judicial body agrees with a ruling that forces species such as carp and rainbow trout to be considered invasive. After this decision, Elvira, along with other scientists and ecologists, requested a few weeks ago in a press conference that the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment expedite the execution of this sentence and that the appropriate protection measures be taken. The invaders, on stage “Altering the evolutionary natural order can be very dangerous”, considers the researcher, and explains it with an example. In 1965, the zoologist and ecologist George E. Hutchinson published The Ecological Theater and the Evolutionary Drama , where he invited the reader to imagine the ecological world as a theater where

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