historical (isolation processes followed by population regrouping), ecological (adaptation processes). local), or genetic (existence of genetic incompatibilities). “Clarifying the relative role of these factors allows us to better understand the process of formation of new species, and in particular, of the formation and evolution of barriers to hybridization. In this specific case, historical factors seem to have played a more important role. “, concludes Martínez-Solano. Apparently the same The similarity between both species caused that, until a few years ago, it was considered that they were the same species. However, genetic studies showed that, given the accumulated differences in their genomes, they are two different species whose differentiation process occurred about 9 million years ago. In Europe, the climatic fluctuations of the

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Pleistocene had a strong impact on many species, Serbia Email List which expanded or contracted their ranges in response to these changes. In the specific case of these toads, their distributions have probably changed a lot in the last two million years. During the colder periods of the Pleistocene, the two species were isolated in different peninsulas in southern Europe: the Iberian ( Bufo spinosus ), and the Balkan and Italian peninsulas ( Bufo bufo ). Later, in warmer periods, both expanded northwards, coming into contact in France and forming the current hybrid zone.A team of scientists from the Centro Nacional de Investigación sobre la Evolución Humana (CENIEH), led by José María Bermúdez de Castro, together with the French researcher Amélie Vialet, from the Natural History Museum in Paris, has just published a paper in the journal PLOS ONE on

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the Middle Pleistocene Montmaurin-La Niche mandible, which reveals the complexity of the origin of the Neanderthals. This mandible was found by Raoul Cammas on 18 June 1949 in the karstic cavities of Montmaurin within the La Niche cave (France), where stone tools and fossil remains of different species of canids, equids and ursids also appeared, helping to place it in time. The presumed age of this mandible, between 200,000 and 240,000 years, had led a close morphological similarity to the mandible of European Neanderthals to be presumed, particularly in the teeth, but the mathematical techniques applied to the study of a wide variety of mandibles, including those of a group of recent African ones, show that it is more in line with the most archaic specimens from Europe, including those from Dmanisi. “We find here an archaic mandible,

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