a beetle with very few gene losses, has forced us to reconsider this idea. Within the phylum of chordates, which includes vertebrates, there are also differences between species, with particular cases, such as the planktonic organism Oikopleura dioica , very prone to losing genes. In the words of Professor Ricard Albalat, “it has been seen that the possibility of losing genes is associated with the way of life of the species.” Thus, «parasitic species, for example, show a greater tendency to lose genes; since as they take advantage of the host’s resources, many of their genes become expendable and end up being lost ». For other organisms, on the other hand, the possibility of losing genes is associated with functional redundancy: «Species with many redundant genes,

such as vertebrates and many Canadian Email Lists plant and yeast species that have duplicated their genome, have also suffered many gene losses due to throughout its evolution. “Curiously,” Albalat details, “massive gene losses are not always linked to radical morphological changes in the body plans of the affected organisms. The chordate O. dioica , for example, despite losing many genes – some essential for embryonic development and the design of the phylum body plan – maintains a typical chordate body plan, with organs and structures (heart, brain, thyroid , etc.) that can be considered homologous to those of vertebrates. Unfortunately, this apparent contradiction, which we have defined as the inverse paradox of evolutionary developmental biology (EvoDevo), is still difficult to explain. Genes lost in the evolutionary history of man

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The loss of a gene can become an advantageous condition. This has been confirmed with laboratory experiments (yeast or bacterial cultures) and with population studies in humans. Some of the best-studied cases in the human species are those of the loss of coding genes by cell receptors (CCR5 and DUFFY), which make individuals more resistant to infection with the AIDS virus (HIV) and plasmodia than causes malaria. In nature, there are gene losses that have been beneficial to organisms: losses that have led to color changes in flowers that attract new pollinators, losses that have made insects capable of colonizing new habitats more resistant to heat, etc. Some studies also propose that losing some genes has been decisive in the origin of the human species.

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