The origin of the metamorphosis Two of the great unknowns for entomologists are: what is the origin of metamorphosis in insects and what genes determine when and how to metamorphose. To find an answer to these unknowns, the group of scientists has compared the genes that are expressed in each phase of development in two species: the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster (one of the most modified organisms in relation to the common ancestor and whose metamorphosis is complete), and the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (one of the most primitive organisms, and with incomplete metamorphosis). The results reveal that genes associated with metamorphosis are predominantly expressed in late nymph stages in the German cockroach and in the early-mid embryo in the case of the fruit fly. It was also observed that in the German cockroach the transition from the maternal genetic program to the embryonic genetic program is concentrated in the early stages of embryogenesis,

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while in the fruit fly this transition Tuvalu Email List occurs throughout the entire embryogenesis. Furthermore, in this transition, the juvenile hormone appears to be of little importance in the fruit fly. These differences possibly reflect trends in the evolution of development from cockroaches to flies, within neoptera, or modern insects. Recent studies have shown that biological innovations are not produced by the appearance of new genes, but by a different use of those genes. By comparing the fly with the cockroach, the researchers identified the genes that are expressed in the main developmental transitions of these species. “We have studied their expression throughout the development of 28,000 genes of the cockroach and 17,000 of the fly in order to find differences that explain how the most important innovations in the evolution of these two insects have occurred,

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including complete metamorphosis ”, Says Bellés. In the development of this work, 22 libraries of messenger RNA were produced and sequenced in the 11 stages of development of the cockroach. In total, 193,014,748 sequence reads were obtained, information that will be made available to the scientific community.may have prompted the emergence of new genetic programs in the rhombencephalon, demonstrating the importance of chromosomal organization. in the development of specific biological functions ”, conclude the researchers Javier Terriente, Ivan Belzunce and Adria Voltes, from the Cristina Pujades group. Scientists from the Paris-Saclay Institute of Neurosciences and the Pablo de Olavide University have also participated in this study.”the wide applicability of this model makes the ‘power of the weak’ a concept to be taken into account from

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