Why do we use NHPs in reproductive research? Due to their phylogenetic closeness to humans (Fig. 1) with regards to anatomy, endocrinology and reproductive physiology, NHPs are invaluable research models for studies on fertility / infertility, IVF or ART procedures, male contraception and reproductive toxicology. Several NHP species have been highlighted as key animal models in human-related studies and are widely used, including Old Word monkeys (macaques, vervet monkeys and baboons) and New World monkeys (squirrel and owl monkeys). Although hominoid species (great apes) are probably closest to humans, the use of these animals in biomedical research has been opposed worldwide. Classification of primates Fig. 1: Classification of primates

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indicating their phylogenetic closeness to humans. Species comparisons and standardization When using NHPs in studies to relate the results back to what would possibly happen in Cameroon WhatsApp Number List humans, one should be careful not to compare apples to oranges. In order to avoid this, two pitfalls must be highlighted. Firstly, just because certain species are phylogenetically close, it cannot be assumed that their semen and sperm characteristics are similar (though it often is!). Secondly, species comparisons require objective, consistent and sensitive techniques to identify differences among species, especially in treatment studies to recognize compromised sperm functions. In both of the aforementioned instances, CASA can be an extremely helpful tool to generate

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comparable baseline data, Using SCA in diverse NHP studies A. Sperm structure and function When we compared sperm structure and function of seven mammalian species, sperm morphometry and motility characteristics (mainly obtained with SCA software) were closely related among three NHP species (Fig. 2 & 3). Although human sperm share some structural aspects with the NHPs (Fig. 2), its swimming characteristics were closer to that of merino rams and mice than to the NHPs (Fig. 3). Human and NHP sperm Fig. 2: Comparison of sperm morphometry parameters among human and NHP sperm. HL, = head length; MPL, midpiece length; TL, tail length, MPV, midpiece volume; MH, mitochondrial height. Eight sperm motility parameters Fig. 3: Cluster

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