the Copper Age and the Bronze Age (between 5500 and 1500 BC, approximately). The mitochondrial DNA of 125 of them had already been the subject of other publications, while that of another 213 individuals has been analyzed within the framework of this project, constituting the largest archeogenetic data set of the Peninsula compiled to date. This material has been compared with existing data from Central Europe and the Carpathian basin previously obtained by the international team, and a different evolution has been evidenced. It has always been considered that the colonization of the Iberian Peninsula occurs through the Mediterranean but, from a genetic point of view, the work, published today in ‘Scientific Reports’, points out that the groups that come from the Mediterranean are very similar to those that They come from Central Europe.

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“In the period analyzed, the only time in which a relatively massive arrival to the Iberian Peninsula is observed is in the ancient Neolithic. These are groups whose origin is the Panama Email List Middle East and from the genetic point of view they are very similar, if not identical, to the populations of Central Europe. The origin is similar and homogeneous, therefore, they are populations that expand both through Central Europe and the Mediterranean ”, explains Rojo Guerra, a situation that is particularly observed in the study of individuals from the Els Trocs cave, in the Pyrenees Huesca. A fast and intense mix In contrast to the situation observed during the early and middle Neolithic in Central and South-Eastern Europe, the populations of the Iberian Peninsula show a much more complex and intense interaction between local hunter-gatherers and the newly arrived Neolithic

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populations from the Middle East. “These Neolithic people quickly mix with the local populations, with the Mesolithic people. We have seen it reflected quite reliably because in the Middle and Late Neolithic, the haplogroups (variations found in human mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA) of most of the individuals analyzed belong to Mesolithic and Upper Palaeolithic populations but also Neolithic populations ”, he emphasizes the UVa researcher. Subsequently, while in the final Neolithic and in the Copper Age Europe became a place of continuous transit of populations, coming from both eastern regions and the steppes (yamna culture), in the Iberian Peninsula the haplogroups of the individuals analyzed come mainly from local populations, except in exceptional cases, such as an individual located in the Las Yeseras site in Madrid, with a more frequent haplogroup in western

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