nitrate. These can be lost with the water and end up in aquifers and contaminate nearby rivers, lagoons and seas, as has happened in the Mar Menor . 4. Responses to food shortages When some element is limiting for the growth of plants, either because it is scarce or not very available, they usually do several things, not mutually exclusive: Redirect the nutrient from the old leaves to the shoots and young leaves, which are the parts that need it most to grow. There are elements that are well remobilized, such as nitrogen and potassium, with which the symptoms of their deficiency appear on old leaves. And others that retranslocate poorly, such as iron and calcium, so their deficiency symptoms appear in the young shoots and leaves (these

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deficiencies are usually the ones that have the most immediate Guatemala WhatsApp Number List effect on the growth of the plant). Activate morphological responses in the root, with changes that affect the architecture of the root and the development of hairs (figure 2), to increase the contact surface with the soil and thus be able to acquire a greater amount of the nutrient deficient. Slow down or paralyze growth, especially that of the aerial part, to reduce the demand for nutrients. This strategy is widely used by wild plants that grow in poor soils. Activate physiological responses in the root to facilitate the solubilization and acquisition of the limiting nutrient. They can increase the number of transporters (“mouths” through which this nutrient is “eaten”), acidify the medium (it would be

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like pouring “strong water” to dissolve insoluble nutrients) or release into the medium compounds that trap and solubilize the nutrients. nutrients, among others. 5. The “satiety” in plants Like us, once we are satisfied, we stop eating, plants, once they acquire the nutrients that are limiting for them, deactivate the responses that facilitate their acquisition. If they don’t, they could acquire these elements in excessive amounts and become intoxicated. This happens to some mutant plants, such as the bronze pea, which becomes intoxicated when grown in a medium with a normal iron concentration (figure 3 left). In the regulation of responses, signals related to the content of the nutrient in the root but also its content in the leaves are involved. One of the

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